Objective: To examine ankle-brachial index (ABI) abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Research design and methods: An ABI was obtained in 2,240 patients in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial. ABIs were classified as: normal, 0.91-1.3; low, ≤ 0.9; high, >1.3; or noncompressible artery (NC). Baseline characteristics were examined according to ABI and by multivariate analysis. RESULTS ABI was normal in 66%, low in 19%, and high in 8% of patients, and 6% of patients had NC. Of the low ABI patients, 68% were asymptomatic. Using normal ABI as referent, low ABI was independently associated with smoking, female sex, black race, hypertension, age, C-reactive protein, diabetes duration, and lower BMI. High ABI was associated with male sex, nonblack race, and higher BMI; and NC artery was associated with diabetes duration, higher BMI, and hypertension.
Conclusions: ABI abnormalities are common and often asymptomatic in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD.