From May 1981 to Feb. 1989 trabeculectomy with per-operative topical application of mitomycin C was performed on eyes with refractory glaucoma. All eyes had undergone prior one, two or more than two antiglaucoma surgeries without success for IOP control. Other risk factors in the present series of eyes included young age, aphakia, rubeosis and glaucoma secondary to trauma or associated with anterior uveitis. 59 eyes underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin application. 14 eyes were lost. 45 eyes of 42 cases, 33 eyes of 31 males and 12 eyes of 11 females were followed for a period of 1 to 8 years, an average 3.0 +/- 1.9 years. The success for IOP control less than 21 mmHg was 77.8%, 35/45 eyes. The success rates were 92%, 11/12 eyes in females and 73%, 24/33 eyes in males. Complications reported in 5-fluorouracil studies such as corneal epithelial toxicity and delayed healing of conjunctival wound were not encountered. The histo-pathological changes of wound healing after trabeculectomy with topical mitomycin application was discussed. In the healing process success to achieve filtration is more likely by pharmacolocally interferring with earlier steps in the process. We recommend the use of per-operative topical application of mitomycin C during trabeculectomy in eyes with uncontrolled glaucoma and poor prognosis, specifically after previous cataract extraction or unsuccessful antiglaucoma surgery.