New roles for innate immune response in acute and chronic kidney injuries

Scand J Immunol. 2011 May;73(5):428-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2011.02523.x.


The innate immune system plays an important role as a first response to tissue injury. This first response is carried out via germline-encoded receptors. They can recognize exogenous Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns and endogenous Dangers-Associated Molecular Patterns. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) family is well-studied, but more recently another family in the cytoplasmic compartment, called nod-like receptor (NLR), was discovered. In addition to being present in inflammatory cells, these receptors are widely distributed in various cell types, including renal tissue, where these receptors have an important role in triggering the inflammatory response during renal diseases. This review summarizes the present data regarding the role of TLRs and NLRs in the course and development of various kidney pathologies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Kidney Diseases / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Toll-Like Receptors