The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5 hmC) in embryonic stem cells and postmitotic neurons has triggered the need for quantitative measurements of both 5-methyl-cytosine (5 mC) and 5 hmC in the same sample. We have developed a method using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (LC-ESI-MS/MS-MRM) to simultaneously measure levels of 5 mC and 5 hmC in digested genomic DNA. This method is fast, robust, and accurate, and it is more sensitive than the current 5 hmC quantitation methods such as end labeling with thin layer chromatography and radiolabeling by glycosylation. Only 50 ng of digested genomic DNA is required to measure the presence of 0.1% 5 hmC in DNA from mouse embryonic stem cells. Using this procedure, we show that human induced pluripotent stem cells exhibit a dramatic increase in 5 mC and 5 hmC levels compared with parental fibroblast cells, suggesting a dynamic regulation of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation during cellular reprogramming.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.