A novel retinoic acid, catechin hydrate and mustard oil-based emulsion for enhanced cytokine and antibody responses against multiple strains of HIV-1 following mucosal and systemic vaccinations

Vaccine. 2011 Mar 16;29(13):2429-36. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.024. Epub 2011 Jan 25.


Non-replicating protein- or DNA-based antigens generally require immune-enhancing adjuvants and delivery systems. It has been particularly difficult to raise antibodies against gp120 of HIV-1, which constitutes an important approach in HIV vaccine design. While almost all effort in adjuvant research has focused on mimicking the pathogens and the danger signals they engender in the host, relatively little effort has been spent on nutritive approaches. In this study, a new nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) composed of vitamin A, a polyphenol-flavonoid, catechin hydrate, and mustard oil was tested for its adjuvant effect in immune responses against the gp120 protein of HIV-1(CN54). Following a combination of two mucosal and two systemic vaccinations of mice, we found significant enhancement of both local and systemic antibodies as well as cytokine responses. These data have important implications for vaccine and adjuvant design against HIV-1 and other pathogens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology*
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Catechin / pharmacology*
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Emulsions / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • HIV Antibodies / blood
  • HIV Antibodies / immunology
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / administration & dosage
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology
  • Immunization, Secondary / methods
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mustard Plant
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*
  • Vaccination / methods


  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cytokines
  • Emulsions
  • HIV Antibodies
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120
  • Plant Oils
  • gp120 protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1
  • Tretinoin
  • Catechin
  • mustard oil