Interferon-α (IFN-α), a type I IFN, is a well-known antitumoral agent. The investigation of its clinical properties in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been prompted by its pleiotropic antiproliferative and immune effects. So far, integration of IFN-α in the therapeutic arsenal against AML has been modest in view of the divergent results of clinical trials. Recent insights into the key pharmacokinetic determinants of the clinical efficacy of IFN along with advances in its pharmaceutical formulation, have sparked renewed interest in its use. This paper reviews the possible applicability of IFN-α in the treatment of AML and provides a rational basis to re-explore its efficacy in clinical trials.