Induction of IL-1 during hemodialysis: transmembrane passage of intact endotoxins (LPS)

Kidney Int. 1990 Dec;38(6):1089-94. doi: 10.1038/ki.1990.317.


Circulating monocytes of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis are triggered to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vivo. Intradialytic induction of IL-1 is associated with complement activation in patients dialyzed with first-use cellulose membranes. Chronic stimulation of IL-1 production occurs because of an yet unidentified mechanism in patients dialyzed with high permeability membranes. The present study demonstrates that intact bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules may cross cuprophan, AN69 and polysulfone membranes under in vitro conditions simulating in vivo hemodialysis. The experiments used purified LPS from Neisseria meningitidis and LPS from Pseudomonas testosteroni, a bacterial strain grown out from a clinically used dialysate. LPS were purified to homogeneity and radiolabeled. Transmembrane passage of 3H-labeled LPS was observed within the first five minutes of dialysis. A total of 0.1 to 1% of 3H-labeled LPS were recovered in the dialysate compartment after one hour of dialysis. High amounts of LPS, representing 40 to 70% of the amount originally present in the dialysate, were absorbed onto high permeability membranes. Low amounts of LPS were absorbed onto cuprophan membranes. The amount of LPS absorbed decreased with the concentration of LPS in the dialysate. LPS recovered from the blood compartment exhibited the same molecular weight as that used to contaminate the dialysate. Biochemically detectable transmembrane passage of LPS was not associated with that of material detectable using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. An IL-1-inducing activity was, however, detected in the blood compartment upon dialysis with high permeability membranes, as previously found by others with cuprophan membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylic Resins
  • Acrylonitrile / analogs & derivatives
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Cellulose / analogs & derivatives
  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism*
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacokinetics*
  • Membranes, Artificial*
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Permeability
  • Polymers
  • Pseudomonas
  • Renal Dialysis*
  • Sulfones
  • Tritium


  • Acrylic Resins
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Interleukin-1
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Polymers
  • Sulfones
  • Tritium
  • polysulfone P 1700
  • AN-69
  • Cellulose
  • cuprammonium cellulose
  • Acrylonitrile