Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells that can be found in almost all postnatal organs and tissues. The main functional characteristics of MSCs are their immunomodulatory ability, capacity for self-renewal, and differentiation into mesodermal tissues. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into several cell types, including muscle, brain, vascular, skin, cartilage, and bone cells, makes them attractive as therapeutic agents for a number of diseases including complications of diabetes mellitus. We review here the potential of MSCs as new therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic wounds. Also, in this review we discuss the current limitations for MSCs therapy in humans.
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