Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions that can usually be treated with relatively simple and effective surgical procedures. It affects primarily the elderly, a rising population worldwide. Together with improved awareness among the medical profession and greater access to modern imaging facilities, the incidence of CSDH is set to rise significantly. Maximization of the efficiency of management of CSDH is therefore a priority. To this end, a review of the findings of clinical and laboratory research underpinning the basis of the modern management of CSDH has been carried out. This review focuses on the pathophysiology and briefly discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and surgical treatments of CSDH, concluding that a one-for-all management strategy is not appropriate. Creating rational bases for the selection of an ideal treatment strategy for an individual patient should be the target. This can be achieved through better understanding of the nature of the condition through systematic basic science research, ascertaining the merits of different surgical techniques in well-designed and rigorously executed clinical trials, using advances in imaging techniques to classify CSDH (a subject not addressed here), and training in and ongoing refinement of clinical acumen and surgical skills of individual surgeons.