Training of perceptual-cognitive skills in offside decision making

J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2010 Dec;32(6):845-61. doi: 10.1123/jsep.32.6.845.


This study investigates the effect of two off-field training formats to improve offside decision making. One group trained with video simulations and another with computer animations. Feedback after every offside situation allowed assistant referees to compensate for the consequences of the flash-lag effect and to improve their decision-making accuracy. First, response accuracy improved and flag errors decreased for both training groups implying that training interventions with feedback taught assistant referees to better deal with the flash-lag effect. Second, the results demonstrated no effect of format, although assistant referees rated video simulations higher for fidelity than computer animations. This implies that a cognitive correction to a perceptual effect can be learned also when the format does not correspond closely with the original perceptual situation. Off-field offside decision-making training should be considered as part of training because it is a considerable help to gain more experience and to improve overall decision-making performance.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Decision Making / physiology*
  • Education / methods*
  • Feedback, Psychological / physiology
  • Humans
  • Judgment / physiology
  • Memory / physiology
  • Motion Perception / physiology
  • Optical Illusions / physiology
  • Professional Competence*
  • Recognition, Psychology / physiology
  • Soccer / psychology
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Videotape Recording
  • Visual Perception / physiology*