Mini-Mental State Examination: a normative study in Italian elderly population

Eur J Neurol. 1996 May;3(3):198-202. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.1996.tb00423.x.


The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a brief test to assess cognitive status, is heavily influenced by age and education. It was administered to 1019 elderly subjects (aged 65-89 years) living in three different Italian cities. A statistical non-linear regression model was built up in order to obtain adjustment coefficients to reduce the influence of demographic variables on the MMSE raw scores. Age and educational level were significantly and independently associated with the MMSE score. Results of a multiple linear regression with transformation of age and education provided adjustment coefficients of the MMSE raw scores. Data from this study will ameliorate the overall reliability of MMSE as a screening test for cognitive impairment in elderly people.