In mammals, most metabolic processes are influenced by biological clocks and feeding rhythms. The mechanisms that couple metabolism to circadian oscillators are just emerging. NAD-dependent enzymes (e.g., Sirtuins and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerases), redox- and/or temperature-dependent transcription factors (e.g., CLOCK, NPAS2, and HSF1), nutrient-sensing transcriptional regulatory proteins (e.g., CREB-CBP-CRCT2, FOXO-p300, nuclear receptors, PGC-1, and SP1 family members) and protein kinases (e.g., AMPK), are plausible candidates for conveying a cell's metabolic state to the core clock circuitry. The intertwining between these acute regulators and circadian clock components is so tight that the discrimination between metabolic and circadian oscillations may be somewhat arbitrary.
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