The latest American Heart Association (AHA) statement for preventing infectious endocarditis, has not recommended prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) except for patients with preexisting predisposing cardiac conditions. Our aim was to determine the incidence of bacteriemia and fever following FB in our experience and compare with those which have been mentioned in AHA guideline as well as other studies. Venous blood of 85 consecutive patients was evaluated for both aerobic and anaerobic cultures before (for detecting possible previous bacteriemia) and after FB. None of the patients were treated with antibiotics prior to the procedure. All the patients were examined during the first 24 hours after FB for detecting fever defined as temperature more than 38 °C. Positive hemocultures were noted in 7 (8.2 %) patients after FB examination. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, coagulase positive Staphylococcus, beta haemolytic Streptococcus, Citrobacter freundii and Streptococcus viridans were found in 4, 1, 1 and 1 cultures of patients, respectively. By excluding 6 contaminated samples, the rate of bacteriemia reduced to 1 (1.1%) patient in whom the identical pathogen (Streptococcus viridans) was found both in bronchial lavage and venous blood culture. We also found fever in 9 (10.5 %) cases in the first 24 hours following the bronchoscopy. Our results were in consistent with AHA recommendations regarding prevention of infectious endocarditis as a practical gridline in patients who schedule for FB. Besides, transient fever following bronchoscopy is a common self-limited event which does not need medical intervention.