Genetic variability of the fructosamine 3-kinase gene in diabetic patients

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011 May;49(5):803-8. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2011.133. Epub 2011 Feb 3.


Background: Nonenzymatic glycation appears to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Fructosamine 3-kinase (FN3K), initially identified in erythrocytes, appears to be responsible for the removal of fructosamine from proteins, suggesting a protective role in nonenzymatic glycation. Recently, genetic variants in the FN3K gene have been studied in diabetic patients. The aim of our study was the molecular characterization of the FN3K gene in a representative group of Italian patients with type 1 (T1DM) and 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus and in a cohort of healthy controls.

Methods: Seventy diabetic subjects (35 type 1 and 35 type 2) with stable glycemic control and 33 healthy control subjects were evaluated using PCR and direct sequencing of the FN3K gene. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) was used in controls for screening for the presence of the genetic variants previously found in diabetic patients.

Results: Seven different genetic variants were identified, five of them already reported and two new: the p.R187X and p.Y239C mutations identified in two females affected by T2DM. No significant association was found between certain polymorphisms and diabetes conditions. Preliminary haplotype studies are also reported. With respect to genotypes, we noted that some were not present in all the investigated cohort, and some were found related to higher glycated hemoglobin compared to others, although not at a significant level, probably because of the small number of subjects investigated.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study identified two new mutations and additional variants within the FN3K gene. This is the first study on FN3K in Italy. Future work is needed to achieve a better understanding of the FN3K enzyme and its possible clinical utility in the management of diabetic patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / enzymology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Glycosylation
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / genetics*


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • fructosamine-3-kinase