Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial

Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr;93(4):764-71. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.007336. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Abstract

Background: Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of daily intake of vitamin D- or vitamin D(3) + calcium-fortified yogurt drink on glycemic status in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Design: Ninety diabetic subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups to consume plain yogurt drink (PY; containing no vitamin D and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (DY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink (DCY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 250 mg Ca/250 mL) twice per day for 12 wk. Fasting serum glucose (FSG), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid profile, and percentage fat mass (FM) were assessed before (baseline) and after the intervention.

Results: In both the DY and DCY groups, mean serum 25(OH)D(3) improved (+32.8 ± 28.4 and +28.8 ± 16.1 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), but FSG [-12.9 ± 33.7 mg/dL (P = 0.015) and -9.6 ± 46.9 mg/dL (P = 0.035)], Hb A(1c) [-0.4 ± 1.2% (P < 0.001) and -0.4 ± 1.9% (P < 0.001)], HOMA-IR [-0.6 ± 1.4 (P = 0.001) and -0.6 ± 3.2 (P < 0.001)], waist circumference (-3.6 ± 2.7 and -2.9 ± 3.3; P < 0.001 for both), and body mass index [in kg/m(2); -0.9 ± 0.6 (P < 0.001) and -0.4 ± 0.7 (P = 0.005)] decreased significantly more than in the PY group. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in serum 25(OH)D(3) and FSG (r = -0.208, P = 0.049), FM (r = -0.219, P = 0.038), and HOMA-IR (r = -0.219, P = 0.005).

Conclusion: Daily intake of a vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink, either with or without added calcium, improved glycemic status in T2D patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01229891.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Calcium / pharmacology
  • Calcium / therapeutic use*
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology
  • Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamins / blood
  • Vitamins / pharmacology
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use*
  • Waist Circumference
  • Yogurt*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Calcium

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01229891