The mammalian MYPT family consists of the products of five genes, denoted MYPT1, MYPT2, MBS85, MYPT3 and TIMAP, which function as targeting and regulatory subunits to confer substrate specificity and subcellular localization on the catalytic subunit of type 1δ protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1cδ). Family members share several conserved domains, including an RVxF motif for PP1c binding and several ankyrin repeats that mediate protein-protein interactions. MYPT1, MYPT2 and MBS85 contain C-terminal leucine zipper domains involved in dimerization and protein-protein interaction, whereas MYPT3 and TIMAP are targeted to membranes via a C-terminal prenylation site. All family members are regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites by various protein kinases; for example, Rho-associated kinase phosphorylates MYPT1, MYPT2 and MBS85, resulting in inhibition of phosphatase activity and Ca(2+) sensitization of smooth muscle contraction. A great deal is known about MYPT1, the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, in terms of its role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction and, to a lesser extent, non-muscle motile processes. MYPT2 appears to be the key myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase in cardiac and skeletal muscles. MBS85 most closely resembles MYPT2, but little is known about its physiological function. Little is also known about the physiological role of MYPT3, although it is likely to target myosin light chain phosphatase to membranes and thereby achieve specificity for substrates involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. MYPT3 is regulated by phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. TIMAP appears to target PP1cδ to the plasma membrane of endothelial cells where it serves to dephosphorylate proteins involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and thereby control endothelial barrier function. With such a wide range of regulatory targets, MYPT family members have been implicated in diverse pathological events, including hypertension, Parkinson's disease and cancer.
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