Gluten-dependent enteropathy and atypical human leukocyte antigen alleles

Hum Pathol. 2011 Aug;42(8):1112-6. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.10.010. Epub 2011 Feb 2.


The risk for developing celiac disease is associated with the major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen DQ2 and DQ8. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 127 consecutive cases of adult-onset celiac disease evaluated at a single United States center to determine the distribution of the associated human leukocyte antigen DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. The median patient age of diagnosis was 41 (range, 16-81) years. Ninety-five adults underwent human leukocyte antigen DQ typing. Eighty patients were DQ2 positive, 24 were DQ8 positive, and 11 were DQ2 and DQ8 positive. Four patients carried the uncommon, low-risk haplotype DQ2.2 (DQA1*02 and DQB1*02) without DQA1*05. Two patients did not carry human leukocyte antigen DQ2 or DQ8. All of the patients with atypical human leukocyte antigen DQ responded to a gluten-free diet. Although the majority of patients carry the human leukocyte antigen DQ2 or DQ8, gluten-dependent enteropathy periodically presents in adults with low-risk alleles.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy
  • Celiac Disease / genetics*
  • Celiac Disease / pathology
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / blood
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics*
  • HLA-DQ alpha-Chains
  • HLA-DQ beta-Chains
  • Haplotypes
  • Histocompatibility Testing
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult


  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ alpha-Chains
  • HLA-DQ beta-Chains
  • HLA-DQA1 antigen
  • HLA-DQB1 antigen