The gut microbiota has recently been recognized for its role in immune regulation, and changes in gut microbiota may be the basis for an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and asthma in developed countries. Beneficial microbes produce factors that are distributed systemically, and therefore can influence peripheral inflammatory responses. Such symbiosis factors are important for the control and resolution of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Here we discuss immune regulation by recently identified symbiosis factors and how certain environmental factors favor their production and influence the composition of the gut microflora.
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