Drug resistance surveillance in resource-poor settings: current methods and considerations for TB, HIV, and malaria

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Feb;84(2):192-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0363.


In resource-constrained environments, monitoring the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or malaria resistant to the limited number of available drugs is essential for national treatment program success. Countries with limited resources and technical capacity rely on survey designs and methods that are simple and easily integrated into routine clinical activities to minimize the impact on overburdened clinics. This paper reviews the most commonly used methods for drug-resistance surveillance of TB, HIV, and malaria and discusses the strengths and limitations of these different strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Biomarkers, Pharmacological
  • Developing Countries
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Drug Resistance, Viral*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Malaria / drug therapy*
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antimalarials
  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Biomarkers, Pharmacological