Nearly 70 years after its description, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) remains a largely undiagnosed condition. As its clinical presentation may be subtle, many of those affected may be unaware or diagnosed only during evaluation for hypogonadism and/or infertility. In February 2010 an interdisciplinary panel of specialists met in Abano Terme (Padua, Italy) in a workshop on "Klinefelter Syndrome: diagnosis and clinical management". The main aim of this meeting was to discuss several aspects related to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and evaluation of KS and to develop a consensus defining its early diagnosis and treatment. In the present consensus we have highlighted the features that may prompt the physicians to look after patients with KS both for the syndrome and correlated diseases. We have provided evidences that, during the different phases of life, there might be some advantages in establishing the diagnosis and starting proper follow-up and treatment. The workshop was carried out under the auspices of the Italian Society of andrology and Sexual Medicine (SIAMS).