Randomized controlled trial to improve adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in obese African-American and Latino youth

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Apr;20(4):811-8. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.343. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic differences in the metabolic responses to a 16-week intervention designed to improve insulin sensitivity (SI), adiposity, and inflammation in obese African-American and Latino adolescents. A total of 100 participants (African Americans: n = 48, Latino: n = 52; age: 15.4 ± 1.1 years, BMI percentile: 97.3 ± 3.3) were randomly assigned to interventions: control (C; n = 30), nutrition (N; n = 39, 1×/week focused on decreasing sugar and increasing fiber intake), or nutrition + strength training (N+ST; n = 31, 2×/week). The following were measured at pre- and postintervention: strength, dietary intake, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry/magnetic resonance imaging) and glucose/insulin indexes (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)/intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)) and inflammatory markers. Overall, N compared to C and N+ST reported significant improvements in SI (+16.5% vs. -32.3% vs. -6.9% respectively, P < 0.01) and disposition index (DI: +15.5% vs. -14.2% vs. -13.7% respectively, P < 0.01). N+ST compared to C and N reported significant reductions in hepatic fat fraction (HFF: -27.3% vs. -4.3% vs. 0% respectively, P < 0.01). Compared to N, N+ST reported reductions in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (-38.3% vs. +1.0%, P < 0.01) and resistin (-18.7% vs. +11.3%, P = 0.02). There were no intervention effects for all other measures of adiposity or inflammation. Significant intervention by ethnicity interactions were found for African Americans in the N group who reported increases in total fat mass, 2-h glucose and glucose incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) compared to Latinos (P's < 0.05). These interventions yielded differential effects with N reporting favorable improvements in SI and DI and N+ST reporting marked reductions in HFF and inflammation. Both ethnic groups had significant improvements in metabolic health; however some improvements were not seen in African Americans.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adiposity
  • Adolescent
  • African Americans*
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Hispanic Americans*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / diagnosis
  • Inflammation / epidemiology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Inflammation / therapy
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Nutrition Therapy / methods
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Obesity / therapy
  • Resistance Training / methods
  • United States / epidemiology