Toxicosis caused by melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats: uncovering the mystery and subsequent global implications

Clin Lab Med. 2011 Mar;31(1):181-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2010.10.003. Epub 2010 Dec 3.


Several major pet-food and human-food safety incidents occurred worldwide between 2003 and 2008, causing illnesses and deaths in children, cats, dogs, and pigs. During the 2007 outbreak of renal failure in dogs and cats in the United States, veterinary diagnostic laboratories helped identify melamine and melamine analogues as contaminants in implicated food. In 2008, thousands of infants developed renal failure from exposure to melamine alone. Management of these outbreaks depends on the collaboration of veterinary and human laboratories and clinics, government agencies, academic institutions, and food industries, along with prompt communication and sharing of data.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / veterinary*
  • Animal Feed*
  • Animals
  • Cats
  • Dogs
  • Food Contamination*
  • Food Safety
  • Product Recalls and Withdrawals
  • Swine
  • Triazines / analysis
  • Triazines / poisoning*
  • Veterinary Medicine / methods


  • Triazines
  • cyanuric acid
  • melamine