Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):273-88. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1692.


Objective: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

Participants: The Task Force consisted of Endocrine Society-appointed experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer.

Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence.

Consensus process: One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, The European Society of Endocrinology, and The Pituitary Society reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines.

Conclusions: Practice guidelines are presented for diagnosis and treatment of patients with elevated prolactin levels. These include evidence-based approaches to assessing the cause of hyperprolactinemia, treating drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, and managing prolactinomas in nonpregnant and pregnant subjects. Indications and side effects of therapeutic agents for treating prolactinomas are also presented.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperprolactinemia* / chemically induced
  • Hyperprolactinemia* / diagnosis
  • Hyperprolactinemia* / etiology
  • Hyperprolactinemia* / pathology
  • Pituitary Neoplasms* / complications
  • Pituitary Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Prolactinoma / complications
  • Prolactinoma / drug therapy