We have deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorods on glass and glass/ITO substrates by DC sputtering and by e-beam deposition. The properties of the nanorods deposited by different methods and on different substrates have been investigated. The ITO nanorods were also used as an electrode in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. We found that the nanorod morphology and sheet resistance had a significant effect on the solar cell performance, with significant improvements in the efficiency compared to commercial ITO film substrates in all cases except for e-beam deposited nanorods on glass that had high sheet resistance. The best power conversion efficiency achieved was 3.2 % (for sputtered ITO nanorods on ITO), compared to 2.1 % for commercial ITO substrates.