Human FoxP3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells: their knowns and unknowns

Immunol Cell Biol. 2011 Mar;89(3):346-51. doi: 10.1038/icb.2010.137. Epub 2011 Feb 8.


Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play indispensable roles for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. In this review, we discuss immunological characteristics of human FoxP3(+) Tregs and to what extent they are similar to or different from the murine counterparts. We also discuss important issues that remain to be addressed in the field to better understand the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease and to build solid basis for immunotherapies targeting FoxP3(+) Tregs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • CD4 Antigens / immunology*
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*


  • CD4 Antigens
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors