Testing an optimized community-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention for HIV-infected injection drug users

Subst Abus. 2011 Jan;32(1):16-26. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2011.540466.


The authors conducted a preliminary study of the 4-session Holistic Health for HIV (3H+), which was adapted from a 12-session evidence-based risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention. Improvements were found in the behavioral skills required to properly adhere to HIV medication regimens. Enhancements were found in all measured aspects of sex-risk reduction outcomes, including HIV knowledge, motivation to reduce sex-risk behavior, behavioral skills related to engaging in reduced sexual risk, and reduced risk behavior. Improvements in drug use outcomes included enhancements in risk reduction skills as well as reduced heroin and cocaine use. Intervention effects also showed durability from post-intervention to the follow-up assessment point. Females responded particularly well in terms of improvements in risk reduction skills and risk behavior. This study suggests that an evidence-based behavioral intervention may be successfully adapted for use in community-based clinical settings where HIV-infected drug users can be more efficiently reached.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Behavior Therapy / methods*
  • Connecticut
  • Drug Users / psychology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Holistic Health
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Risk-Taking
  • Safe Sex / psychology
  • Safe Sex / statistics & numerical data
  • Substance Abuse, Intravenous / psychology*


  • Anti-HIV Agents