[Treating the symptoms in nephrotic syndrome: which therapeutic strategies are evidence based in the treatment of proteinuria?]

Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2011 Feb;136(7):325-30. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1272532. Epub 2011 Feb 7.
[Article in German]


Glomerular diseases are among the most common renal pathologies leading frequently to end-stage renal disease. Clinical disease can be divided into five different groups the features of which are determined by the underlying pathophysiology. One of these five clinical syndromes is the nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by proteinuria > 3.5 g/day accompanied by hypalbuminemia, hyperlipoproteinemia and pronounced edema. The nephrotic syndrome may be the clinical manifestation of a row of underlying diseases. The pathophysiological basics had remained elusive for decades, yet recently significant progress which allows for establishing new therapeutic strategies has been made. A major breakthrough in understanding the function of the glomerular filter unit has been possible in the last years through both genetic and cell biological studies, which have revealed a crucial role for the visceral epithelial cells of the glomerulus - the podocytes. By now various factors have been found causing podocyte damage, such as toxines, immunological phenomena or systemic disease like diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diet, Protein-Restricted
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted
  • Edema / etiology
  • Edema / physiopathology
  • Edema / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias / etiology
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias / physiopathology
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias / therapy
  • Hypoalbuminemia / etiology
  • Hypoalbuminemia / physiopathology
  • Hypoalbuminemia / therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Kidney Glomerulus / physiopathology
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / etiology
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / therapy*
  • Podocytes / physiology
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Weight Loss / physiology


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Hypoglycemic Agents