Although estradiol-17β (E2)-regulated early and late phase uterine responses have been well defined, the molecular mechanisms linking the phases remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that E2-regulated early signals mediate cross talk with estrogen receptor (ER)-α to elicit uterine late growth responses. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) has been implicated in early nongenomic signaling mediated by E2, although its role in E2-dependent uterine biology is unclear. Using selective activation of GPR30 by G-1, we show here a new function of GPR30 in regulating early signaling events, including the inhibition of ERK1/2 and ERα (Ser118) phosphorylation signals and perturbation of growth regulation under the direction of E2 in the mouse uterus. We observed that GPR30 primarily localizes in the uterine epithelial cells, and its activation alters gene expression and mediates inhibition of ERK1/2 and ERα (Ser118) phosphorylation signals in the stromal compartment, suggesting a paracrine signaling is involved. Importantly, viral-driven manipulation of GPR30 or pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 activation effectively alters E2-dependent uterine growth responses. Overall, GPR30 is a negative regulator of ERα-dependent uterine growth in response to E2. Our work has uncovered a novel GPR30-regulated inhibitory event, which may be physiologically relevant in both normal and pathological situations to negatively balance ERα-dependent uterine growth regulatory functions induced by E2.