Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome is a clinical entity characterized by mucinous ascites usually originating from a perforated mucinous appendiceal tumor. Currently optimal therapy is considered complete macroscopic tumor removal (complete cytoreduction) combined with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy. When complete cytoreduction is not achievable, major tumor debulking is undertaken. The long-term follow-up of patients undergoing surgery for perforated appendiceal tumors in a national pseudomyxoma center is reported.
Methods: Between March 1994 and July 2009, 456 patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome from perforated appendiceal tumors underwent surgery. The treatment strategy involved a combination of cytoreductve surgery aiming for macroscopic tumor removal, combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with mitomycin C. Where complete tumor removal was not possible, maximal tumor debulking was performed. Perioperative outcomes and predicted 5- and 10-year survival are reported.
Results: Overall 15 of 456 (3%) tumors were not resectable at laparotomy. Of the 441 patients who had resection, 289 (66%) had complete cytoreduction and 152 (34%) had major tumor debulking. Postoperative in-hospital mortality was 1.6% and grade 3/4 morbidity was 7%. The Kaplan-Meier method predicted 5- and 10-year overall survival of 69% and 57%, respectively. Five- and 10-year predicted survival was 87% and 74% for the 289 patients who had complete cytoreduction compared with 34% and 23% for the 152 who had major tumor debulking.
Conclusion: Complete tumor removal was achieved in 289 of 441 (66%) patients with peritoneal dissemination from perforated appendiceal tumors with good long-term survival and probable cure in more than two-thirds.