Although often depicted as a static structure upon which proteinaceous factors bind to control gene expression, the genome is actually highly mobile and capable of exploring the complex domain architecture of the nucleus, which in turn controls genome maintenance and gene expression. Numerous genes relocate from the nuclear periphery to the nuclear interior upon activation and are hypothesized to interact with pre-assembled sites of transcription. In contrast to the nuclear interior, the nuclear periphery is widely regarded as transcriptionally silent. This is reflected by the preferential association of heterochromatin with the nuclear envelope (NE). However, some activated genes are recruited to the nuclear periphery through interactions with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), and NPC components are capable of preventing the spread of silent chromatin into adjacent regions of active chromatin, leading to the speculation that NPCs may facilitate the transition of chromatin between transcriptional states. Thus, the NE might better be considered as a discontinuous platform that promotes both gene activation and repression. As such, it is perhaps not surprising that many disease states are frequently associated with alterations in the NE. Here, we review the effects of the NE and its constituents on chromatin organization and gene expression.
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.