Treatment of resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections

Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2010 Nov;12(6):455-64. doi: 10.1007/s11908-010-0138-8.

Abstract

Enterococcus spp have emerged as important pathogens in urinary tract infection (UTI), especially in hospitalized patients. Resistance to multiple antibiotics, including vancomycin, has become common, particularly in infections involving Enterococcus faecium. The management of UTIs caused by Enterococcus spp has become challenging given the presence of underlying comorbidities in these patients and the limited therapeutic options available to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus. Routine therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria with MDR-Enterococcus is not recommended. Removal of indwelling urinary catheters should be considered. Appropriate antibiotic therapy selection should be guided by urine culture and susceptibility results. Data are limited on the treatment of UTIs caused by MDR-Enterococcus. Potential oral agents active against MDR-Enterococcus that may be considered for acute uncomplicated UTI include nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones. Potential parenteral agents for the treatment of pyelonephritis and complicated UTIs caused by MDR-Enterococcus include daptomycin, linezolid, and quinipristin-dalfopristin. Aminoglycosides or rifampin may be considered as adjunctive therapy in serious infections.