Medical care of type 2 diabetes in German disease management programmes: a population-based evaluation

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 May;27(4):383-91. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.1186.


Objective: Type 2 diabetes disease management programmes (DDMPs) are offered by German social health insurance to promote healthcare consistent with evidence-based medical guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare healthcare quality and medical endpoints between diabetes management programme participants and patients receiving usual care designated as controls.

Methods: All patients with type 2 diabetes (age range: 36-81) in a cross-sectional survey of a cohort study, performed by the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, received a self-administered questionnaire regarding their diabetes care. Physical examination and laboratory tests were also performed. The analysis only included patients with social health insurance and whose participation status in a diabetes disease management program was validated by the primary physician (n = 166). Regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes duration, baseline waist circumference and clustering regarding primary physician were conducted.

Results: Evaluation of healthcare processes showed that those in diabetes disease management programmes (n = 89) reported medical examination of eyes and feet and medical advice regarding diet [odds ratio (OR): 2.39] and physical activity (OR: 2.87) more frequently, received anti-diabetic medications (OR: 3.77) and diabetes education more often (OR: 2.66) than controls. Both groups had satisfactory HbA(1c) control but poor low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Blood pressure goals (<140/90 mmHg) were achieved more frequently by patients in diabetes disease management programmes (OR: 2.21).

Conclusions: German diabetes disease management programmes are associated with improved healthcare processes and blood pressure control. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control must be improved for all patients with diabetes. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effects of this diabetes disease management programme.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Disease Management*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • National Health Programs*
  • Patient Education as Topic / statistics & numerical data
  • Quality Control
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Waist Circumference


  • Hypoglycemic Agents