Neurons are functionally and morphologically polarized and possess two distinct types of neurites: axons and dendrites. Key molecules for axon formation are transported along microtubules and accumulated at the distal end of the nascent axons. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in selective transport in neurons. In addition, we focus on motor proteins, cargo, cargo adaptors, and the loading and unloading of cargo.
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