Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes with a complex multifactorial pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility genes that increase the risk of DR in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to further elucidate the underlying mechanism of DR pathogenesis.
Design: A case-control study.
Participants: We included 749 unrelated individuals with T2D (174 with DR and 575 without DR) and 100 nondiabetic controls.
Methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study using Illumina HumanHap550-Duo BeadChips.
Main outcome measures: Compared with the genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between subjects with DR and without DR.
Results: Using statistical models, we selected a total of 12 SNPs with P-values <1 × 10(-6) that were associated with DR. After controlling for diabetes duration and hemoglobin A(1C), 9 of the 12 SNPs located on 5 chromosomal regions were found to be associated with DR. Five loci not previously associated with DR susceptibility were identified in and around the following genes: MYSM1 (Myb-like, SWIRM, and MPN domains 1) located on chromosome 1p (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.20); PLXDC2 (plexin domain-containing 2) located on the chromosome 10p (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.06-2.65); ARHGAP22 (Rho GTPase-activating protein 22) located on chromosome 10q (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.05-2.60); and HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3) located on chromosome 13q (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.13-4.77). The SNPs rs13163610 and rs17376456 located in the unknown gene on chromosome 5q were also associated with DR (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.38-9.58).
Conclusions: We identified a genetic association for susceptibility to DR in 5 novel chromosomal regions and PLXDC2 and ARHGAP22, the latter 2 of which are genes implicated in endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased capillary permeability. These findings suggest unsuspected pathways in the pathogenesis of DR.
Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.