The growth of electronic publication and informatics archives makes it possible to harvest vast quantities of knowledge about knowledge, or "metaknowledge." We review the expanding scope of metaknowledge research, which uncovers regularities in scientific claims and infers the beliefs, preferences, research tools, and strategies behind those regularities. Metaknowledge research also investigates the effect of knowledge context on content. Teams and collaboration networks, institutional prestige, and new technologies all shape the substance and direction of research. We argue that as metaknowledge grows in breadth and quality, it will enable researchers to reshape science-to identify areas in need of reexamination, reweight former certainties, and point out new paths that cut across revealed assumptions, heuristics, and disciplinary boundaries.