Recovery after heavy resistance exercise and skeletal muscle androgen receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I isoform expression in strength trained men

J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Mar;25(3):767-77. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318202e449.


The effects of heavy resistance exercise on skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein concentration and mRNAs of AR, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF)-IEa, and mechano growth factor (MGF) expression were examined from biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle before and 48 hours after heavy resistance exercise (5 × 10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press and 4 × 10RM squats) in 8 adult strength trained men. The present exercise induced an acute decrease in maximal isometric force and increased serum total testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) concentrations. During 2 recovery days, maximal isometric force and subjective perception of physical fitness remained significantly lowered, whereas serum creatine kinase activity, subjective muscle soreness, and muscle swelling (i.e., thickness of VL by ultrasound) were significantly increased compared to pre-exercise values. Subjective perception of physical fitness was followed up to 7 days, and by 6 days postexercise, it was elevated above the pre-exercise level. Basal T and FT concentrations remained unaltered after the exercise. No statistically significant changes were observed in AR protein or mRNA expression, but IGF-IEa (p < 0.05) and MGF (p < 0.05) mRNA expression were increased compared to pre-exercise levels. These findings indicate that IGF-IEa and MGF responses may be related to acute regenerative processes in muscle because of exercise and may contribute to muscular adaptation to resistance exercise. Subjective perception of physical fitness suggests that recovery over a pre-exercise level of the present type of heavy resistance exercise can take approximately 6 days.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Adult
  • Creatine Kinase / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism*
  • Isometric Contraction / physiology
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength / physiology
  • Physical Fitness / physiology
  • Physical Fitness / psychology
  • Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis
  • Protein Isoforms / physiology
  • Quadriceps Muscle / chemistry
  • Quadriceps Muscle / diagnostic imaging
  • Quadriceps Muscle / physiology*
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism*
  • Recovery of Function / physiology*
  • Resistance Training / methods*
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor / biosynthesis
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor / physiology
  • Testosterone / blood
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology
  • Ultrasonography
  • Young Adult


  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • STAT5A protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Testosterone
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Creatine Kinase