High fluid shear stress and spatial shear stress gradients affect endothelial proliferation, survival, and alignment

Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Jun;39(6):1620-31. doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0267-8. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

Abstract

Cerebral aneurysms develop near bifurcation apices, where complex hemodynamics occur: Flow impinges on the apex, accelerates into branches, then slows again distally, creating high wall shear stress (WSS) and positive and negative spatial gradients in WSS (WSSG). Endothelial responses to these kinds of high WSS hemodynamic environments are not well characterized. We examined endothelial cells (ECs) under elevated WSS and positive and negative WSSG using a flow chamber with constant-height channels to create regions of uniform WSS and converging and diverging channels to create positive and negative WSSG, respectively. Cultured bovine aortic ECs were subjected to 3.5 and 28.4 Pa with and without WSSG for 24 and 36 h. High WSS inhibited EC alignment to flow, increased EC proliferation assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and increased apoptosis determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling. These responses to high WSS were either accentuated or ameliorated by WSSG: Positive WSSG (+980 Pa/m) inhibited alignment and stimulated proliferation and apoptosis, whereas negative WSSG (-1120 Pa/m) promoted alignment and suppressed proliferation and apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ECs discriminate between positive and negative WSSG under high WSS conditions. EC responses to positive WSSG may contribute to pathogenic remodeling that occurs at bifurcations preceding aneurysm formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cell Proliferation*
  • Cell Survival
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Endothelium / metabolism*
  • Endothelium / pathology
  • Hemodynamics*
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / metabolism*
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / pathology
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / physiopathology
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Shear Strength
  • Stress, Physiological*