Background & aims: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) have increased mucosal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) availability, possibly because immune activation reduces activity of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). We investigated the relationship between mucosal and platelet SERT and immune activation of the duodenal mucosa in patients with IBS-D.
Methods: We quantified mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), mast cells, and enterochromaffin cells in blood samples, measured levels of SERT messenger RNA (mRNA) in mucosal samples, and assessed platelet uptake of 5-HT and platelet membrane binding of (3)H-paroxetine in samples from 29 healthy volunteers (HVs), 20 patients with IBS-D, and 20 untreated patients with celiac disease.
Results: Patients with IBS-D or celiac disease had increased numbers of IELs and mast cells compared with HVs (both P < .001). Levels of SERT mRNA were reduced in the mucosa of patients with IBS-D or celiac disease and were inversely correlated with numbers of IELs (r = -0.72, P < .0001). Uptake of 5-HT by platelets from patients with IBS-D or celiac disease was reduced (mean, 17.1 ± 3.5 and 28.3 ± 4.1 nmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively) compared with HVs (50.8 ± 8.0 nmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), P < .01 and P = .05, respectively). Binding of paroxetine to membranes of platelets from patients with IBS-D (median [interquartile range], 226 [92-405] fmol/mg protein) was significantly greater than that from HVs (109 [69-175] fmol/mg protein) and correlated inversely with platelet uptake of 5-HT (r = -0.62, P = .03). Tryptase release from incubated biopsy samples was significantly increased in patients with IBS-D (2.2 [0.42-3.5] vs 0.50 [0.25-0.86] ng·mL(-1)·mg(-1) for HVs; P = .03).
Conclusions: Platelet SERT is reduced in IBS-D and associated with reduced levels of SERT mRNA and duodenal immune activation.
Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.