Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are associated with anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Limited data is available on longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AQP4-IgG and their relation to disease activity and inflammatory parameters. AQP4-IgG titers were measured in matched longitudinal serum and CSF samples of 12 patients with NMOSD by an immunofluorescence assay and correlated with clinical parameters. CSF AQP4-IgG were present in patients with high serum titers and correlated with spinal MRI lesion length and CSF parameters. Clinical improvement was associated with a decrease in CSF, but not serum, AQP4-IgG titers. Thus, CSF AQP4-IgG were associated with clinical activity and neuroinflammation.
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