Recently, unexpected biological features of polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been revealed. In addition to their pivotal role in the defence against pathogens, neutrophils display a high degree of plasticity and contribute to control of adaptive immune responses. An emerging aspect of neutrophils is their ability to modulate their survival in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This review focuses on recent advances that have uncovered proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and other cell cycle regulatory proteins as novel players regulating neutrophil survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in neutrophil fate might pave the way for the identification of new anti-inflammatory molecules.
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