Objectives: To determine the antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of several dose levels of oral TBR-652 monotherapy in HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral experienced, CCR5 antagonist-naive subjects.
Design: Double-blind placebo-controlled study in the United States and Argentina.
Methods: Subjects were randomized in a ratio of 4:1 per dose level to TBR-652 (25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg) or placebo, taken once daily for 10 days. Changes from baseline in HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell counts were measured through day 40 and for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and IL-6 at day 10. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed using noncompartmental statistics. Laboratory and clinical adverse events (AEs) and electrocardiogram changes were recorded.
Results: Maximum median reductions in HIV-1 RNA values for the 25, 50, 75, and 150 mg doses were -0.7, -1.6, -1.8, and -1.7 log10 copies per milliliter, respectively. All changes were significant. Median time to nadir was 10-11 days. Suppression persisted well into the posttreatment period. Mean MCP-1 increased significantly by day 10 in the 50-mg and 150-mg dose groups. Effects on CD4 cell counts, hs-CRP, and IL-6 levels were negligible. TBR-652 was generally safe and well tolerated, with no withdrawals due to AEs.
Conclusions: TBR-652 caused significant reductions in HIV-1 RNA at all doses. Significant increases in MCP-1 levels suggested a strong CCR2 blockade. TBR-652 was generally well tolerated with no dose-limiting AEs. Pharmacodynamics indicate that TBR-652 warrants further investigation as an unboosted once-daily oral CCR5 antagonist with potentially important CCR2-mediated anti-inflammatory effects.