Purpose: To detail the spectrum of eye manifestations in Takayasu arteritis and factors predisposing to its development.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 61 patients with proven Takayasu arteritis who were identified during a 16-month period were evaluated for disease- and treatment-related eye manifestations. A fundus fluorescein angiography examination was performed where indicated and with the patients consent.
Results: The mean (±standard deviation) duration of illness before ophthalmic evaluation was 55 ± 69 months. Decreased vision was the most common ocular symptom (30%). Thirty-five patients underwent fundus fluorescein angiography examination. Takayasu retinopathy was seen in 9 (15%), ocular ischemic syndrome in 4 (7%), and hypertensive retinopathy in 10 (16%) patients. The most common treatment-related ocular complication was steroid-induced cataract (23%). Other manifestations included iris neovascularization (n = 3), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (n = 2), steroid-induced glaucoma (n = 1), neovascular glaucoma (n = 1), and uveitis (n = 1). Those manifesting Takayasu retinopathy and ocular ischemic syndrome had significantly (P < 0.05) lower blood pressure in both upper limbs compared with patients not manifesting ischemic retinopathy. A significant (P < 0.03) proportion of patients with Takayasu retinopathy and ocular ischemic syndrome had a nonrecordable right upper limb blood pressure.
Conclusion: Disease- and treatment-related ocular complications are not infrequent in Takayasu arteritis. Arteritis involving the aortic arch and its branches favors the development of ischemic ocular complications.