Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications, nucleosomal remodeling and chromosomal looping, contribute to the onset and progression of prostate cancer. Recent technical advances significantly increase our understanding of the genome-wide epigenetic regulation of gene expression in prostate cancer. Aberrant genomic distribution and global level of histone modifications, nucleosome repositioning at the gene promoter and enhancer regions, as well as androgen receptor-mediated chromosomal looping may lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of proto-oncogenes. In addition, androgen receptor-induced chromosomal looping facilitates recurrent gene fusion in prostate cancer. Studies in epigenetic regulation have translational implications in the identification of new biomarkers and the development of new therapies in prostate cancer.
Keywords: CHIA-PET; ChIP-seq; Hi-C; bioinformatics; chromatin organization; epigenome; histone modification; next-generation sequencing; prostate cancer.