Impact of the Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM) model on medication appropriateness and drug-related hospital revisits

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;67(7):741-52. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0982-3. Epub 2011 Feb 12.


Purpose: To examine the impact of systematic medication reconciliations upon hospital admission and of a medication review while in hospital on the number of inappropriate medications and unscheduled drug-related hospital revisits in elderly patients.

Methods: This was a prospective, controlled study in 210 patients, aged 65 years or older, who were admitted to one of three internal medicine wards at a University Hospital in Sweden. Intervention patients received the complete Lund Integrated Medicines Management model (medication reconciliation upon admission and discharge, and medication review and monitoring) provided by a multi-professional team, including a clinical pharmacist. Control patients received standard care and medication reconciliation upon discharge. Blinded reviewers evaluated the appropriateness of the prescribing (using the Medication Appropriateness Index) on admission and discharge, and assessed the probability that a drug-related problem was the reason for any patient readmitted to hospital or visiting the emergency department within 3 months of discharge (using World Health Organisation causality criteria).

Results: There was a greater decrease in the number of inappropriate drugs in the intervention group than in the control group for both the intention-to-treat population {51% [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-58%] vs. 39% (95% CI 30-48%); p = 0.0446} and the per-protocol population [60% (95% CI 51-67%) vs. 44% (95% CI 34-52%); p = 0.0106)]. There were six revisits to hospital in the intervention group which were judged as 'possibly, probably or certainly drug-related', compared with 12 in the control group (p = 0.0469).

Conclusions: In this study, medication reconciliation and review provided by a clinical pharmacist in a multi-professional team significantly reduced the number of inappropriate drugs and unscheduled drug-related hospital revisits among elderly patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Algorithms
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Drug Prescriptions / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Errors / prevention & control*
  • Medication Reconciliation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Medication Therapy Management / standards*
  • Patient Admission
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Poisson Distribution
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Sweden


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations