Smokeless tobacco and prevalence of cardiovascular disease

J Okla State Med Assoc. 2010 Nov-Dec;103(11-12):539-44.


Introduction: Few studies have examined the possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease with smokeless tobacco. Existing studies have yielded inconsistent results and have been based on limited populations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of smokeless tobacco increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and to identify higher risk groups.

Methods: Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1999 to 2001 for the state of Oklahoma were analyzed. We analyzed 10332 complete records to assess association of any use of smokeless tobacco (over the respondent's life time) with cardiovascular disease. Similarly, the association between cardiovascular disease and individual socio-demographic covariates such as age, gender, smoking, and BMI was checked. As a secondary analysis we explored associations among three categories for smokeless tobacco users, current, former, and never users, with cardiovascular disease.

Results: Logistic regression models, which controlled for age, sex, race-ethnicity, obesity, and smoking, estimated the odds of having cardiovascular disease were 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.45) times higher among smokeless tobacco users. This odds ratio was more than two fold in the Non-White/Hispanic group (O.R. 2.31, 95% CI: 1.42, 3.73). Similarly the odds of cardiovascular disease were higher among female ST users than among females who were non-users of ST (O.R. 1.72 95% CI: 1.12, 2.65).

Conclusion: A modest increase in the odds of cardiovascular disease was associated with smokeless tobacco. Two risk groups were identified, females and Non-Whites/Hispanics, whose odds of cardiovascular disease increased with the use of smokeless tobacco.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oklahoma / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco, Smokeless / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult