A validation study of goal orientations and self-efficacy scales

Percept Mot Skills. 2010 Dec;111(3):735-48. doi: 10.2466/


The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity and reliability of goal orientation and self-efficacy scales. The scales were administered to 264 university students (154 from engineering departments, 110 from business administration). Two samples were used. In the first sample, the original factor model was tested with confirmatory factor analysis. In the second sample, the Turkish versions of the scales were factor analyzed. Principal components analysis resulted in three components for the Goal Orientation scale: Learning goal orientation, Performance-prove goal orientation, and Performance-avoid goal orientation. The Self-efficacy scale had one factor as expected. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were satisfactory. The results did not fully support the use of current Turkish versions of the scales. Results of the studies are discussed along with the strengths and limitations of the study and suggestions for further development of the scales.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Female
  • Goals*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Students / psychology
  • Translating
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult