Drug design tools--in silico, in vitro and in vivo ADME/PK prediction and interpretation: is PK in monkey an essential part of a good human PK prediction?

Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11(4):351-7. doi: 10.2174/156802611794480954.


Quantitative human pharmacokinetic (PK) predictions play a critical role in assessing the quality of potential drug candidates and in selecting a human starting dose for clinical evaluation, where the parameters of clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability as well as the plasma concentration time profiles are the desired endpoints. While there are numerous reports validating the use of different methods for predictions, it still remains an open question as to what animal species to include when extrapolating the animal PK to human. Given toxicological assessment is generally conducted in two species, a rodent and a non-rodent species, prior to evaluation in human subjects, rat, dog and/or monkey are typically the species ADME scientists employ to evaluate PK. However, the question is, can we achieve an adequate prediction without the use of larger species such as monkey? In the end, the data and tools utilized for human PK predictions will depend on a number of factors such as information from observed human PK for structurally related compounds; the primary mechanism of clearance, and the availability of in silico and in vitro tools applicable to the respective clearance mechanism. Despite these dependencies, for most situations, adequate predictions can be achieved without the use of monkey PK for predicting human.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drug Design*
  • Haplorhini / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Models, Animal*
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Pharmacokinetics*


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations