Description: The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence for the link between the use of intensive insulin therapy to achieve different glycemic targets and health outcomes in hospitalized patients with or without diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Published literature on this topic was identified by using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Additional articles were obtained from systematic reviews and the reference lists of pertinent studies, reviews, and editorials, as well as by consulting experts; unpublished studies on ClinicalTrials.gov were also identified. The literature search included studies published from 1950 through March 2009. Searches were limited to English-language publications. The primary outcomes of interest were short-term mortality and hypoglycemia. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations by using the ACP clinical practice guidelines grading system. RECOMMENDATION 1: ACP recommends not using intensive insulin therapy to strictly control blood glucose in non-surgical intensive care unit (SICU)/medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients with or without diabetes mellitus (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: ACP recommends not using intensive insulin therapy to normalize blood glucose in SICU/MICU patients with or without diabetes mellitus (Grade: strong recommendation, high-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: ACP recommends a target blood glucose level of 7.8 to 11.1 mmol/L (140 to 200 mg/dL) if insulin therapy is used in SICU/MICU patients (Grade: weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).