Objective: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults.
Methods: We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information.
Results: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising.
Conclusions: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.
An Analysis of Energy-Drink Toxicity in the National Poison Data SystemSM Seifert et al. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 51 (7), 566-74. PMID 23879181.
About half the cases of energy drink-related toxicity involved unintentional exposures by children < 6 years old. Educational campaigns and legal restrictions on the s…
[Risks of Energy Drinks in Youths]AX Bigard. Arch Pediatr 17 (11), 1625-31. PMID 20926266. - ReviewThe market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredi …
Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for AdolescentsN Pennington et al. J Sch Nurs 26 (5), 352-9. PMID 20538866. - ReviewA new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. S …
Energy Drinks: What Is All the Hype? The Dangers of Energy Drink ConsumptionM Rath. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 24 (2), 70-6. PMID 22324861. - ReviewThe popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to over …
Behavioral and Physiologic Adverse Effects in Adolescent and Young Adult Emergency Department Patients Reporting Use of Energy Drinks and CaffeineDA Jackson et al. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 51 (7), 557-65. PMID 23869657.Energy drink users and substance users are more likely to report specific physiologic and behavioral adverse effects. Emergency department clinicians should consider aski …
Cited by 158 PubMed Central articles
Food Products That May Cause an Increase in Blood PressureM Adamczak et al. Curr Hypertens Rep 22 (1), 2. PMID 31915940. - ReviewResults of clinical study suggest that consumption of high-sodium food leads to transient increase in plasma sodium concentration. This is accompanied by blood pressure i …
Detrimental Impact of Energy Drink Compounds on Developing Oligodendrocytes and NeuronsM Serdar et al. Cells 8 (11). PMID 31684159.The consumption of energy drinks is continuously rising, particularly in children and adolescents. While risks for adverse health effects, like arrhythmia, have been desc …
European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society Statement on the Cardiovascular Events Associated With the Use or Abuse of Energy DrinksS Lévy et al. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 56 (1), 99-115. PMID 31482331. - ReviewEnergy drinks are increasingly used by young people and young athletes in order to improve their performance alone or in association of other substances, particularly alc …
Effects of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors on the Health of Adults in the Eastern Province of KSAMT Al-Hariri et al. J Taibah Univ Med Sci 13 (1), 16-21. PMID 31435298.This study highlights the effect of major modifiable risk factors on health. There is a great need for improving and enhancing a healthy lifestyle behaviour.
Caffeinated Energy Drink Consumption and Predictors of Use Among Secondary School Students Over Time in the COMPASS Cohort StudyAE Butler et al. Prev Med Rep 15, 100911. PMID 31194103.Consumption of caffeinated energy drinks (CED) by youth is a public health priority, given the lack of regulation and evidence for both short and long-term health effects …
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