Cohesin: genomic insights into controlling gene transcription and development

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Apr;21(2):199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2011.01.018. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Abstract

Over the past decade it has emerged that the cohesin protein complex, which functions in sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair, also regulates gene expression and development. Even minor changes in cohesin activity alter several aspects of development. Genome-wide analysis indicates that cohesin directly regulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, pluripotency, and differentiation through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms are poorly understood, but involve both partial gene repression in concert with Polycomb group proteins, and facilitating long-range looping, both between enhancers and promoters, and between CTCF protein binding sites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Genome*
  • Humans
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic*

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • cohesins